Document A

Inspired by the African American civil rights movement, Native Americans organized the “Red Power” movement to seek civil rights in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In 1969, seventy-eight Indians occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. The following is an excerpt from the proclamation “To the Great White Father and All His People,” written by an activist who occupied Alcatraz Island.

What point were Native Americans trying to make by occupying Alcatraz Island and issuing the proclamation?

Document B

Speech by Cesar E. Chavez, January 12, 1990.

How does Chavez compare his movement to Dr. King's fight for civil rights?

Document C

United States Constitution (proposed but not ratified).

Who would have benefited from the 27th Amendment? Explain how they would have benefited.

Document D

Source: Janet K. Boles, The Politics of the Equal Rights Amendment, 1979.

ERA ratification map by state.

How does this map demonstrate regional differences regarding civil rights?

Document E

National Opinion Research Center General Social Survey, adapted from Jane J. Manbridge’s Why We Lost the ERA, 1986.

Percent Favoring the ERA in 1982.

How does the statistical data support or fail to support the ERA Amendment?

Document F

Table 19.1, number of black elected officials.

How did Brown v. Board of Education change the number of African American elected officials?

Document G

Laura Hershey, “Wade Blank’s Liberated Community,” and the picture “I can't get to the back of the bus.”

What similar strategies did individuals with disabilities and civil rights protestors use to achieve equality?

Document H

Affirmative action is a requirement, imposed by law or administrative regulation, that an organization take positive steps to increase the number or proportion of women, blacks, and other minorities in its membership.

Affirmative Action Political cartoon, “It's HIS fault.”

What is the point of view of the angry man who did not get admitted into the college?