Web Sites

American Photographs: The First Century

Center for Media Literacy

(The Web site of this nonprofit educational organization

includes classroom approaches to the interpretation of images.)

Freeze Frame: Eadweard Muybridge's Photography of Motion

Helios: Smithsonian American Art Museum Photography Online

In the Steps of Esteban: Tucson's African American Heritage

(This site includes lessons from the Smithsonian-affiliated Tucson

Unified School District that might prompt ideas about teaching

with historical photographs of your school or community.)

Secrets of the Dark Chamber: The Art of the American Daguerreotype

Books for Teachers

Foresta, Merry. At First Sight: Photography and the Smithsonian. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 2003.

Mora, Gilles. Photospeak: A Guide to the Ideas, Movements, and Techniques of

Photography, 1839 to the Present. New York: Abbeville Press, 1998.

Books for Students

Ages 4-8

Gibbons, Gail. Click! A Book about Cameras and Taking Pictures.

New York: Little Brown, 1997.

Ages 9-12

Czech, Kenneth P. Snapshot: America Discovers the Camera. Minneapolis:

Lerner Publications, 1996.

Gains, Ann Graham. American Photographs: Capturing the Image.

Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Enslow Publishers, 2002.

Lowe, Jacques, ed. Looking at Photographs: People. San Francisco:

Chronicle Books, 1995.

Pflueger, Lynda. George Eastman: Bringing Photography to the People.

Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Enslow Publishers, 2002.


Michelle Delaney and Katie Morris

National Museum of American History

Merry Foresta and Liza Karvellas

Smithsonian Photography Initiative


Stephen Binns


Michelle Knovic Smith

Publications Director

Catalone Design Co.



Cover: Detail from Interior with Portraits by Thomas Le Clear, ca. 1865. Smithsonian American Art Museum, purchase made possible by the Pauline Edwards Bequest.

Pages 1, 8, 18 (daguerreotype, Muybridge, and Kodak cameras): Photographic History Collection, Division of Information Technology and Society, National Museum of American History, Behring Center.

Page 4 and details of portraits on 11: National Portrait Gallery. Matthew Perry by Mathew Brady Studio (right, page 11), gift of John O'Brien.

Page 6: San Francisco, Corner of California and Montgomery Streets by James Ford, ca. 1857. Smithsonian American Art Museum, purchase from the Charles Isaacs Collection made possible in part by the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment.

Art on page 9: Comanche Warrior Lancing an Osage, at Full Speed by George Catlin, 1837-39. Smithsonian American Art Museum, gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. Goat Ripping, Tajikistan by Louis Lozowick, 1932. Smithsonian American Art Museum, gift of Adele Lozowick.

Color photograph on page 9: Man Diving by Raghubir Singh. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, gift of the artist. Copyright © 1987 Raghubir Singh/Succession, Raghubir Singh.

Wet-plate camera on page 18: Jeff Tinsley, Smithsonian Institution