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This is an excerpt of the 1882 annual report of affairs by E.A. Swan, United States Indian agent of the Siletz Indian Agency in Toledo, Benton County, Oregon. Such agencies, which managed Indian reservations, were required to prepare annual reports addressing industry, agriculture, transportation, education, housing, etc.
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Santana, Kiowa Chief (ca 1830–78) was sometimes called the “Orator of the Plains.” He fought against the westward expansion of the railroads because he knew they would disrupt the buffalo herds that were the basis of Kiowa survival. He was taken prisoner by General Sherman, who tricked him with false claims of a peaceful council meeting. He committed suicide while imprisoned in Texas.
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This excerpt is from a report written by Major S.G. Colley, U.S. Indian agent, as part of the congressional investigation into the Sand Creek Massacre. On November 29, 1864, U.S. forces led by John M. Chivington attacked a camp of friendly Cheyenne and Arapahos, and slaughtered hundreds of men, women, and children. Public outrage over the brutal event led to a congressional and military investigation and a condemnation of the massacre.
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Luther Standing Bear was born Ota Kte on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota as a hereditary chief of the Dakotas. He was one of the first students to attend Captain Richard H. Pratt’s Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. After graduating, he pursued various professions, including teacher, minister, clerk, and actor. Luther Standing Bear is best remembered for his contribution to Native American literature. In his books he fought to improve conditions for Indians on the reservations,
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William T. Hornaday was a Taxidermist and Curator of Living Animals at the Smithsonian Institution from 1882 to 1889. In 1886 he headed an expedition to Montana to collect live bison for the United States National Museum, after hearing accounts of the declining bison population. The public interest that these animals generated led to the creation of the Department of Living Animals in 1888 with Hornaday as its first Curator.
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With more and more immigrants and displaced farmers moving to the west, legislative efforts to improve homesteading laws became necessary, but were also opposed on multiple fronts. Northern factories owners feared a mass departure of their cheap labor force and southern states worried that rapid settlement of western territories would give rise to new states populated by small farmers opposed to slavery. The House of Representatives passed the Homestead Act three times; each time it was defeated
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In 1873, special commissioners John Wesley Powell and George W. Ingalls reported to the Bureau of Indian Affairs on the western Indian tribes who had not yet moved to reservations. Both felt that it would be to the benefit of the Ute Indian to move to a reservation in the Uinta Basin. However, due to lack of firm government direction and organization, the Utes remained in their homeland.
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An Ode to the New City
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Observations of Pittsburgh, 1833
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Charles Dickens on a steamboat between Pittsburgh and Cincinnati

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