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The American Indian Movement (AIM) received worldwide attention in November 1969, when a group of 300 Indian activists occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay to publicize the Indian cause. The activists demanded title to Alcatraz under provision of an 1882 act that stated that abandoned federal facilities (such as the empty prison on the island) should be utilized for Indian schools. AIM issued this statement.
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Mexican American labor leader Cesar Estrada Chavez was born in 1927 near Yuma, Arizona. In 1965, Chavez formed the first farm workers union, the National Farm Workers’ Association (NFWA), later renamed the United Farm Workers of America.
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In 1972, Congress passed a proposal for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. The amendment failed to receive the required three-fourths approval by the states in the allotted seven-year time period. After a three-year extension, the proposal finally expired in 1982.
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Laura Hershey is a committed disability-rights activist, a journalist and poet, and a skilled trainer.
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Ruth Colker wrote this piece as a senior in high school. Colker is now one of the country’s leading scholars in the areas of constitutional law and disability discrimination. She has done pro bono work on behalf of disadvantaged groups in society for more than fifteen years.
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ERA Ratification Map by State: 1972–82
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On June 30, 1982, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was officially stopped, three states short of ratification. An analysis of the ERA vote shows that the gender and racial imbalance in the legislatures contributed greatly to its defeat. In 1982, more than two-thirds of the women and all of the African Americans in the targeted legislatures cast pro-ERA votes, but less than 50 percent of the white men voted for the ERA.
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Following the Civil War, blacks had voting rights in the former Confederate states, and numerous black officials won election to Congress during that period. When measures prevented black suffrage, only very few African Americans were elected to office. Not until after the civil rights movement did the number of black elected officials rise significantly; in the last thirty years, it increased sixfold.
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“His Fault”: Political Cartoon
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Stop ERA,” Phyllis Schlafly

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