Smithsonian

Minavavana, a Chippewa chief, addressing trader Alexander Henry, as recorded by Henry, 1761

Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not yet conquered us! We are not your slaves. . . .

Englishman, our father, the King of France, employed our young men to make war upon your nation. In this warfare many of them have been killed, and it is our custom to retaliate until such time as the spirits of the slain are satisfied. But the spirits of the slain are to be satisfied in either of two ways; the first is by the spilling of the blood of the nation by which they fell; the other by covering the bodies of the dead, and thus allaying the resentment of their relations. This is done by making presents.

Englishman, your king has never sent us any presents, . . . wherefore he and we are still at war; and until he does these things we must consider that we have no other father, nor friend among the white men than the King of France. . . . You do not come armed with an intention to make war. . . . We shall regard you, therefore, as a brother. . . . As a token of our friendship we present you with this pipe to smoke.